Adjective(形容词)

英语词法学习笔记(新东方悉铭霞)

定义

定义:修饰名词,说明事物或人的性质或特征的词。
作用:限定、描述,修饰名词或者其他名词或代词的一类词。

形容词分类

  1. 性质形容词和叙述形容词。
  2. 简单形容词和复合形容词。

性质形容词
直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词,它有级的变化,可以用程度副词修饰。在句中可作定语、表语和补语。例如:hot。

叙述形容词(表语形容词)
只能作为表语,没有级的变化,也不能用程度副词修饰。

alike, alive, alone, asleep, awake.

简单形容词
不带前缀或后缀: good/round/pretty/nice
带有前缀或后缀:illegal/interesting/wonderful

复合形容词

形容词+形容词/现在分词/过去分词/名词/名词+ed
名词+形容词/现在分词/过去分词/名词+ed
数词+名词(单数)+形容词

col 1 col 2
light-blue world-wide
good-looking time-saving(time-consuming)
well-handled hand-made
low-quality stone-hearted
open-minded five-month-old

形容词功能

定语
Diligent students will always have good results.

表语
She is awake for 10 hours.

状语
The girl sits at the corner, silent.

补语
She found the river dry.

独立成分
She has already won world-wide reputation, needless to say the fact that she is famous in China.

用法

1. The + adj. 表示一类人,与谓语动词的复数连接。
the dead
the living
the rich
the poor
the blind
the hungry
the old

2. The + 国籍/民族/种族形容词 表示这个民族或种族的整体,动词用复数
the British/ the French/ the Chinese

3. 多个形容词修饰一个中心词时,顺序。
限定词–数词–描绘词(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色)–出处–材料性质–类别–中心词。
“美小圆旧黄,法国木书房”
a big round desk.
the third expensive race car.
a big new living room.
famous German medical school.

4. 形容人物特点的形容词
乐观?诚实?谦虚?乐于助人?负责的?自私的?消极的?

  • 乐观的 optimistic
    Sally is such an optimitic girl that she could always pass on her passion of life to others.
    这是什么从句?

  • 乐于助人的/有所帮助的 helpful
    You might think that you are being helpful, but actually you are doing harm to the little kids.
    honest 诚实的
    We must be honest about what we do not know.

  • 耐心的/病人 patient
    You have to be patient if you wanna become a photographer.

  • modest 谦虚的
    Be modest, or you will lag behind.
    jetlag 时差
    Stay hungry, stay follish.

  • responsible 有责任心的
    Our cultural backgroud may have influenced who we are, but we are responsible for who we become.

  • 自私的 selfish
    How selfish of her! = How selfish she is! You cannot be so selfish. You have to care about the environment.
    Under the Dome 穹顶之下

  • 消极的/被动的 Passive
    People always tend to be passive or keep quite, but what we need is the courage to debate.

5. 形容心情 感到…(人做主语)VS令人(物/事做主语)

  • satisfied/satisfying
    satisfy v. 使满意
    y -> i + ed 感到满意的/V原+ing令人满意的
    I am satisfied with your work.
    Your work is satisfying.

  • suprised(感到惊奇的)/suprising(令人惊讶的)
    surprise v. 使惊奇
    I am surprised with the beauty’s English.
    The beauty’s English is suprising.

  • frightened/frightening
    frighten v. 使害怕
    The little girl was frightened by the earthquak.
    The earthquake is frightening.

  • annoyed/annoying
    annoy v.使生气

  • ed 感到气愤的/ +ing 令人气愤的
    The boss is annoyed with staff’s mistakes.
    The staff’s mistakes are really annoying.

6. 易混淆形容词对比学习

  • economic/economical
    economic 经济的
    economical 节俭的

  • considerate/considerable
    considerable 大量的
    considerate = thoughtful 体贴的/周到的
    Girls are more considerate to parents than boys.

  • sensible/sensitive
    sensible 实用的/明智的
    sensitive 敏感的

  • intense/intensive
    intense 强烈的/剧烈的/高度的
    intensive 精深的/集中的

  • respectable/respectful/respective
    respectable 值得尊敬的,有名望的;a ~ scientist
    respectful 尊敬人的,有礼貌的
    He is always respectful to the senior.
    respective 各自的,分别的

  • imaginable/imaginary/imaginative
    imaginable 可想象的(可想见的)
    imaginary 想象中的,不真实的,假象的
    imaginative 运用想象力的,有想象力的

  • credible/credulous credible 可信的,可靠的
    credulous 轻易相信的,易上当的

  • comparable/comparative
    comparable 可比较的,有类似之处的
    Nothing is comparable to winning a Nobel Prize. comparative 比较而言的,相当的
    His professional skills have comparative advantage over others.
    comparative advatage over. 相对优势

7. 形容词比较级、最高级

  • 比较级 + than
  • 比较级 + and + 比较级
  • the比较级,the比较级

最高级:最… (一个个体和其他所有的比较)

规则变化:比较级+er或前面加more,最高级+est或前面加more

不规则变化表。

more and more + adj. 越来越
the比较级,the比较级 越…越…

修饰比较级:
much/even/far/a log
a little/a bit/still

Airplanes go much faster that trains.

Sally is the tallest girl in her class.
LV bags are the most gorgeous ones.
Those who are loved are the happiest people.

大部分形容词加ly可构成副词
单friendly, deadly, lovely, lonely, likely,
lively, ugly, brotherly等仍为形容词。

例如:
The Global People is a weekly paper.
The Global People is published weekly.

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