Passive Voice(被动语态)

英语词法学习笔记(新东方魏大伟)

The monkey ate the banana.(Active)
The banana was eaten by the monkey.(Passive)

概念

看主语和谓语动词之间的关系。

主动语态(active voice):主语为执行者。
Jason painted the picture.

被动语态(passive voice):主语是动作的承受者。
The picture was painted by Jason.

各个时态的被动

一般现在时 am/is/are done
They clean the office every day.
The office is cleaned by them every day.

They give me a lot of work to do.
I am given a lot of work to do(by them).

They invite you to attend the annual meeting.
You are invited(by them) to attend the annual meeting.

一般过去时的被动
was/were + done

They cleaned the office yesterday.
The office was cleaned by them yesterday.

People planted many trees on that hill last year.
Many trees were planted(by people) on that hill last year.

一般将来时态的被动
will(shall) be done

The office will be cleaned soon.
When will the classroom be cleaned?
When shall we be given English class this week? 第一人称I/we还可用shall来代替will

一般过去将来时态
would be done
I told him that the office would be cleaned soon.
I didn’t expect that we would be invited to the annual meeting.

现在进行时
am/is/are being done

I am being treated with the utmost hospitality.
The office is being cleaned now.
The kids are being taken care of by Ms.Scavo.
Are you being troubled by his deeds?

过去进行时
was/were being done

The office was being cleaned this time yesterday.
Proposals from different departments were being discussed at that time.
Was the wall being painted when you got home this time yesterday?

现在完成时的被动

has/have been done

The office looks tidy. It has been cleaned.
Many new foreign books have been published since last month.
Have they been informed of it?

过去完成时的被动

The office looked tidy. It had been cleaned.
He told me that the supermarket had been shut down.
His report had been approved by the board by the end of last week.

将来完成时的被动

The office will have been cleaned by 6 o’clock.
I think all of the work will have been finished before he arrives.
How many projects will have been completed by the end of this year?

过去将来完成时的被动

He told me that the office would have been cleaned by 5 o’clock that day.

I was told that all the projects would have been completed by the end of that year.

不同结构的被动

情态动词+ be done

This can’t be finished in a short time.
Where can the books be found?
Should he be told about his health condition?
All the cups must be returned to their proper place.

双宾语动词

Give me the book. me 和 book 都是宾语。
直接宾语(物体),间接宾语(人)。

She often tells us interesting stories.

We are often told interesting stories(by her).
Interesting stories are often told(by her) to us.

Our teacher assigned us a lot of homework.

A lot of homework was assigned to us.
We were assigned a lot of homework by our teacher.

复合宾语动词(宾语补足语)
复合:宾语+宾补

They request me(宾语) to be present (宾补) at the conference.
I am requested to be present at the conference.(主补)

He has painted this chair yellow(宾补). This chair has been painted yellow(主补).

We elected Jason monitor of the class.(宾补) Jason was elected monitor of the class.(主补)

不带to的不定式作宾补时,变为被动要加上to.
I saw him play basketball on the playground.
He was seen to play basketball on the playground.

这一类动词通常为感官动词或使役动词
see, observe, watch, notice, look at, hear, listen to, feel.
make, have, let(使役动词)

含有宾语从句的逐句变为被动,常用it + be + done +从句
People believe that he has some magic powers.
It is believed that he has some magic powers.

We have decided that the proposal should be carried out immediately.
It has been decided that the proposal should be carried out immediately.

It is said/ reported/ hoped/ well known / thought/ suggested that…

不及物动词(vi)+介词/副词被视为及物动词词组。
They will look into the case.
The case will be looked into.

The thief broken into his house.
His house was broken into.

We are to put off the meeting till Friday.
be to do(表将来)
The meeting is to be put off till Friday.

非谓语动词的被动的被动形式

  • 不定式 to be done
    He needs to be looked after.
    It is better to be prepared than unprepared.

  • 动名词 being done
    He hated being treated like child.
    Being offered such a job was sheer good luck.

  • 现在分词 being done
    The question being discussed is the key point.
    I saw him being taken away by the police.
    Being protected by a solid house, he felt safe.

  • 过去分词:本身表示被动,没有相应的被动形式
    Frustrated, he returned to his house.
    The door remained locked.

其他
get/seem/appear done 结构也可以表示被动含义
He nearly got hit by a car yesterday.
I was so shocked that my words seemed stuck in my throat.
That house appears deserted.

用主动表达被动含义

  • 主语常为物,通常具有某种内在特征/属性,从而使得后面的动作难以实现
    The seat belt won’t buckle.
    It eats well.(很好吃)
    The door won’t lock.(门锁不上了)
    The new novel sells well.(卖的很好)
    open, close, start, end, shut, move等

  • 一些连系动词
    The flower smells good.
    It sounds great!
    The dog looks dangerous.
    feel, taste, prove…

被动语态常用介词

  • by表示执行者
  • with表示某种工具
    The wolf was killed with a gun.
  • of表示材料(看得出来)
    The chair is made of green wood.
  • from表示材料(看不出来)
    This drink is made from boiled water and local cane sugar.

不用被动语态的场合
- 不及物动词
The sun is rising.
When did that happen? - 宾语是法身代词、相互代词、同源宾语时不变被动
He hurt himself when he fell from the tree.
We should help each other.
They live a happy life.

使用被动使用场合

当不知道或不必支持动作执行者
Five people were injured in this accident.
These books are wirten for children.
All of the machine components are made in China.
The questions is to be discussed in the next unit.
The american general election will be held in 2016.

当动作的承受者是话题中心
Many creeks in this region are polluted.
The poem was written by a student.
The house next dorr has been sold.
Those suggestions can be discussed this afternoon.

当不希望说出动作的执行者时(处于礼貌、措辞等原因)
You are warmly invited to a wine tasting to be held at the M club.
It is generally considered rude to stare at people.
It is hoped that such things would not happen again.
You are requested to submit a progress report before this Friday.

在公告/通知、新闻报道、科技文章等场合(客观,严肃,正式)
No liquid items are allowed on the plane.
Thousands of Clinton emails released(公布).
The mixture is put in a vacuum container and kept for 30 days.

例句

It’s really weird. The window won’t shut.
In the spoken English of smoe areas in the US, the ‘r’ sounds at the end of the words are dropped.
A lecture on American cluture will be given in this room next Monday. To make our community more green, rubbish mustn’t be thrown into the river.
Experiments of this kind had been conducted in both US and Europe well before the Second World War.

– It’s time to go to bed, Jason.
– Yes, Mum. I’ll turn off the TV as soon as the programme ends.

He was given pieces of advice, but he didn’t listen to them.
The old men and the children must be taken care of in our country.
Json was heard to sing many songs at the party.
When we got there, the broken road was being repaired.

– I think the shop is closed.
– No, it’s open. It closes at six.

He has been laughed at by his classmates.

The 5th generation computers, with artificial intelligence, are being developed and perfected now.

We’re late. I think the film will already have started by the time we get to the cinima.
The squirrel was lucky that it just missed being caught.❤️

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