Tense(时态)

英语词法学习笔记(新东方魏大伟)

英语的4时(tense)4态(aspect)

时态 一般 进行 完成 完成进行
现在 现在一般 现在进行 现在完成 现在完成进行
过去 过去一般 过去进行 过去完成 过去完成进行
将来 将来一般 将来进行 将来完成 将来完成进行
过去将来 过去将来一般 过去将来进行 过去将来完成 过去将来完成进行

Examples

时态 一般 进行 完成 完成进行
现在 study/studies am/is/are studying have/has studied has/have been studying
过去 studied was/were studying had studied had been studying
将来 will study will be studying will have studied will have been studying
过去将来 would study would be studying would have studied would have been studying

一般现在时

1. 表示客观存在/永恒真理,不受时间限制。
It rains in summer.
A rolling stone gathers no moss.
The sun rises in the east.
Knowledge is power.

2. 表示现在的状态、情况
They study in the same university.
He is a lawer.
The soup tastes great.
He speaks four languages.
You look terrific today!

3. 表示惯性、反复发生的动作
He gets up at 6:30 in the morning.
She is always on time for her class.
My father doesn’t smoke.
Do you often listen to the morning news?
I usually go to work by subway.

tips:频率副词(often/always)出现在be后动前。

4. 表示正在发生的动作
Bob takes the ball forward quickly, passes it to John; John shoots and yes, it’s a goal!] Look, I now take this end of the rope, place it under the bottle, and I put the other end.
Here comes the bus. There goes the balls.
5. 表示将来发生的动作
I will let Bob know if I see him tomorrow.(条件状语从句)
He will talk about it with you when you meet.(时间状语从句)
The plane leave in 30 minutes.
I hope you get better soon.
I’ll make sure this doesn’t happen again.

6. 表示过去发生的动作
Tina tells me you’re going to leave BJ next month. I learn that he is on his vacation in South Africa.
Peace Talks Fail(新闻标题中) Isaac Newton says:…(饮用已故者的评论或言论)
The police warned the workers, However, these unarmed workers press on and on.

一般过去时

1. 表示在过去发生的动作或存在的状态(常与过去时间连用)
He visited our school last Friday.
She left 20 minutes ago.
How did you get the news?
Some of them were students at that time.
The party was a great success.

2. 表示过去习惯动作。
The boy sold cigarettes for a living.
We often played basketball together.
My grandfather lived a simple life.
We always discussed these problems till mid-night at that time.

3. 口语中某些场合下表示委婉的语气
I wondered if you could give me some help.
Could you pass the bokk to me please?
Would you do me a favor?
I thought you might like some cakes.

His mother was a nurse all her life. (去世)
His mother has been a nurse all her life.(仍然在世)
He lived in Beijing for 15 years. (已经不在) He has lived in BJ for 15 years. (在)

一般将来时(will)

1. 由will引导,表示对将来的预测
We will know the results next Monday.
Will you be there this afternoon?
What will you do when you meet him?
I won’t tell anybody about this.

2. be going to引导,表示预测
Look at the clouds. It’s going to rain!
It’s 8 o’clock now. I am going to be late.
According to the current status, we are going to meet the deadline without any problem.
Look! He is going to fall!

3. will 和 be going to 的区别
will … 说话者的个人(客观)预测,be going go通常有较为明显的证据或迹象表明某事情将要发生。

I think he will come back.
I think he is going to come back.

be going to 可以表示马上就发生,无力阻止的事情,而will没有这个含义

在条件或时间状语从句,通常用will而不用be going to

You will make it if you try really hard.
You will know when you get there.

4. 其他用法

现在进行时表示将来
They’re having a party this Sunday.
He is flying to Paris tomorrow.
I am leaving soon.

确定程度,由强到弱,现在进行时,be going to, will.

一般现在表示将来

be to do / be about to do / be due to

Who is to pay for the damage?
I am about to leave at 4 o’clock.
Jason is due to graduate next year.

一般过去将来时

1. 从过去的观点看将要发生的事情,would+动词原形
will(将来) 改成了 would(will的过去式).

4个宾语从句:
I thought that probably he would join us. We expected that you would go with us. He told me that he would come.
He said he would never go there again.

2. was/were going to do
I thought there was going to be a storm soon.
She said she was going to start off immediately.

3. 过去进行时
He said the train was leaving at 5am the next day.
She said she wasn’t going out that night.

4. was/ were to /about to / due to do
I was about to leave when I met him.
The plane was due to land in 30 minutes.
They were to leave for Shanghai that afternoon after our meeting.

on time (准时)/ in time (及时)

现在进行时

基本构成:am/is/are + doing

1. 表示说话时正在进行的动作
Hi, what are you doing?
I’m doing my laundry.

2. 表示现阶段持续的动作
What are you doing recently? I’m working on a new project.
Where are you living? I’m living near the train station, and will move to the suburb next month.

3. 表示变化的过程,用于含“改变”意义的词
Let’s hurry up. It’s getting dark.
Their attitude toward this issue is changing.
His American dream is coming true.

get, change, come, become, grow…

4. 表示将来确定的安排
I’m getting married next month.

过去进行时

基本构成:was/were + doing

1. 表示过去某个时间正在进行的动作
What were you doing at 10am last Friday?
He was working overtime(加班) last night at the same time.
I was doing my homework when telephone rang.
She was so scared because someone was following her.

2.表示过去某个阶段持续的动作

From 2001 to 2005, I was working for ABC company.
They were preparing for the exam last month.
He was thinking of you all those days.

3. 表示过去将来时间的动作
4. 描绘景象,设置故事背景
It was getting dark. The boy was playing…
It was raining. The old servant was sitting…

5. 口语中用来表达委婉语气
I was wondering if you could let me know the details.
I was hoping that you would like to lend me your book.
I was thinking that maybe you could go there by bus.

6. 过去进行时与一般过去时
一般过去时->动作已经完成,过去进行时->动作在持续。 He wrote a letter to his father last night.
He was writing a letter to his father last night.

一般过去时->一次动作,过去进行时->反复动作。
She was waved to me.
She was waving to me.

将来进行时

基本结构: will be + doing

1.将来某个时间正在进行的动作
We will be flying to London next Monday.
This time tomorrow we will be sitting in the classroom and having English class.
Do you think you will be working here in two year’s time?

2. 口语中表示将来计划好的事情

I’ll be meeting my dentist tomorrow afternoon.
He will be taking his final exam next week.
Mr. Park will be giving a speech at the ceremony.

表示将来计划 好的事情,一般可与现在进行时互换,区别不大。

3. 口语中表示礼貌委婉语气,与will do区别
How long will you be staying here?(委婉)
How long will you stay here?

When will be returning the book?
When will you return the book?

He will not be sending the paper to you.(不会发)
He will not send the paper to you. (不愿意)

You can’t miss him. He will be wearing a black suit and white shirt waiting for you.

I and take these books to Mr. Smith’s for sure. I will be having a meeting with at 2pm today.

过去将来进行时

基本构成:would be + doing
从过去的视角看将来进行的动作

I think James will be taking care of this issue.
I thought James would be taking care of this issue.

He doesn’t know when she will be seeing him again.
He didn’t know when she would be seeing him again.

现在完成时

基本构成: have/has + done

I have had my hair cut.(我已经剪了头发)

1. 表示过去的动作或状态一直延续到现在(有可能刚刚结束,也有可能会持续下去)

I have been a teacher for 10 years.
He has been in love for 5 years. The old lady has lived here for over 30 years.

  • 动词需要有延续性
  • 通常会跟延续性的时间状语
    since + 时间/从句

He has fallen asleep for 3 hours.(❌)
He has been asleep for 3 hours.(正确)

She has married for over 3 years.(❌)
She has been married for over 3 years.(OK)

He has taught us English since 2010.
I have worked in this company since I graduated from school.(since后动词多数为短暂、一般过去时)

It’s been 2 years since I worked in this company.
我离开这家公司已经有2年了。 It’s been 2 years since I have worked in this company.
我在这家公司已经2年了。

It’s been 2 years since was in this school.
我离开学校已经2年了。
It’s been 2 years since I have been in this school.
我在学校已经2年了。

  • for + 时间段
  • until now/ so far/ up until now…
  • in/over/during/for + the last/past several months/years

2. 表示动作在过去已经完成,并没有延续到现在,对现在有影响。

I have lost my mobile phone.
jason has cleaned his room.
The elevator has broken down.
Have you had your lunch yet? Yes, I have.

经常与just,already,yet,never,lately,ever等时间状语连用。

Have you ever worked in a cafe?
Has it stopped snowing yes?
He has already arrived.

3. 现在完成时态与一般过去时
有明确的过去时间,通常只用一般过去时。
I finished the report last Friday.
She was here 1 hour ago.
I had my lunch at 1pm yesterday.

如果时间状语不明确,现在完成时用来表达对现在有影响,一般过去只说明过去,有现在没关系。

I have had my hair cut.
I had my hair cut.

4.其他

have been to 与 have gone to
I have been to Europe many times.
He has gone to Europe.

Have you got a laptop?
I’ve got a few things to talk about.
I’ve got a bad headache.

have got to(口语) 与 have to 含义相同

I’ve got to go.
This is what we have got to do.
You’ve got to be careful.
You’ve got keep an eye on it.

特殊句式
This is the first time that I have come to Paris.
It is the 3rd cpu of coffee that I have drunk this afternoon.
This is the best movie that I have ever watched.
This is the easiest job I have ever had.

This / It/That + 序数词/最高级+名词+that从句

时间或条件句中代替将来完成时
I will write a summary when I have finished the report.
I will go to see you when I have finished my work.
If he hasn’t got, please don’t wake him.
Don’t move on unless you have already prepare well.

过去完成时

基本构成: had + done

1. 站在“过去”回顾“更远的过去”,通常上下文中需有明确的一般过去时作为参照点。
He has lived here for 10 years.
He had lived here for 10 years when I moved in.

2. 动作或状态起始于“过去的过去”,到某一个“过去”时间点刚刚停止或有可能继续延续下去。
She had been a teacher for 30 years when she retired.
I had waited for him for over 3 hours when he finally showed up.
He had studied English for 6 years when he entered college. We had collected 1,000 stories by the end of last month.

3. 动作或状态起始于“过去的过去”,到某一个“过去”时间点已经停止(通常为短暂动作)。

I had finished my report before they came.
When I arrived Jack had just left.
She had just entered her room before the telephone rang.
The baby had fallen asleep when we went into the room.

4. It/ That + 序数词/最高级 + 名词 + that从句
That was the first time that had come to Paris.
That was the 3rd cup of coffee that I had drunk that afternoon.
That was the best movie that I had ever watched.
That was the easiest job I had ever had.

5. 表示过去未能实现的想法、愿望等(非真实)
I had hoped that we would leave tomorrow, but it’s beginning to look difficult.
I had planned to leave erlier but he wouldn’t let go.
He had intended to see you off at the airport, but he was stuck by something else.

常见词:hope, plan, intend, mean, want, suppose, think, wish…

将来完成时

基本构成: will have + done
站在将来的一个时间点,在那个时间点应用现在完成时。

1.站在“将来”看过去,动作发生在“将来”时间之前

We will have finished our final exam by next Thursday.

2. 表示动作到将来某一时刻刚刚停止或将继续延续下去,表达延续时间
I will have learnt English for 10 years by the end of this year.
We will have been here for 5 years by this autumn.
She will have worked in this hospital for 50 years when she retires next week.

3. 表示动作到将来某一时刻之前已经结束/完成
The bus will have left when we get to the station.
I will have finished the school when we meet next time.
The project will have been completed before next August, when World Expo is to be held right here.

过去将来完成时态

基本构成:would(will的过去式) have done

1. 将将来完成时,放在过去的时态下

He told me that he would have finished his homework by 7 o’clock.

They said they would have arrived by 4pm.

I guessed he would have prepared well when we got back.

2. 虚拟语气,表示与过去事实相反,有if
If I had left earlier, I would have caught the bus.

If we had found the fault in advance, we would have avoided the complaint.

I would have forgotten her birthday if you hadn’t reminded me.

现在完成进行时(重点)

基本构成:have/has been + doing,兼有“完成”和“进行”两种含义。

1. 表示长期在延续的事件

I have been learning English for more than 10 years now.
He has been living here for over 30 years.
Mr. Li has been working in this company since 15 years ago.

I have learnt English.
I have been learning English.
He has lived in China.
He has been living in China.
Mr. Li has worked in this company.
Mr. Li has been working in this company.

2. 表示近期一段时间内延续的时间
We have been discussing the proposal lately.
The new employee has been working hard these days.
I have been thinking about going abroad for study.
I have been waiting to tell you the truth.
He has been meaning to meet you in person.

3. 表示说话时刻仍然延续的事件
We have been watching videos for an hour now. Come on and join us!

He has been reading that book for about 2 hours. He needs to take an exam about it tomorrow.

It has been raining all day. I am not sure when it will stop.
I have been using the machine for the last 20 minutes and I will keep going till I can compeletely control it.

过去完成进行时

基本构成: had been + doing,参照时间由“现在”表为”过去“。

1. 表示过去长期延续的事件
She had been studying German for 2 years before she went to Germany.
I had been looking for her for over 6 months when I found her in a supermarket nearby.

2. 表示过去近期延续的事件

She looked exhausted. I know she had been working realy hard those days.

3. 表示过去说话时正在延续的事件

We had been watching videos for 2 hours when he got back and we asked him to join us.

4. 表示过去刚刚在延续的事件
I encountered him at the airport last week. He just got his degree and returned to China. He had been studying abroad.

5. 与短暂动词、有限延续动词连用,表示重复(不谈具体次数)
He had been stealing for 2 years before the police caught him.

将来完成进行时

基本构成:will have been + doing

I will have been learning English for 15 years by this winter.
She will have been working in the company for over 20 years by next month.

She will have been discussing the topic for 6 hours by then.

I will have been coming to China for 2 years by next month.

过去将来完成进行时(出现几率极低)

基本构成:would have been + doing (转述)

He told me that he would have been teaching English for ten years by that Autumn.
I knew from her introduction that she would have been living in Tokyo for 15 years by the end of this year.

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