Attributive Clauses(定语从句)

英语句法学习笔记(新东方张兰心)

定语从句是英语学习的拦路虎。

who\which\that的用法

定语修饰名词
server 服务员

Who served you?

The tall woman served me.
The short man served me.
The woman who has a handbag served me.
The woman who has dark hair served me.
The man who is standing behind the counter served me.

定语:修饰(限定)名词,通常为形容词。从多个名词中确定一个,可以放在名词前面或后面(从句)。

The big(定语) woman served me.
The woman who has a handbag served me.(定语从句)

定语从句只和它限定的名词有关系。

结构:

  • 人 + who/that + 动词 …
  • 物 + which/that + 动词 …

翻译为定语从句:

在这间办公室工作的人很友好。
Step 1: 找到被修饰的名词和定语
名词:人
定语:在这间办公室工作
Step 2: 名词 + who/which + 定语
Step 3: 逐个翻译
They are very nice who work in this office.❌
The people who work in this office are very friendly(nice).

住在楼下的女人是医生。
名词:女人
定语:住在楼下的
The woman who lives downstairs is a doctor.

你认识那个想买车的女人吗?
名词:女人
定语:想买车的
Do you know the woman who wants to buy a car?👌

我要嫁一个爱我的人。
I want to marry a man who loves me.(限定man, who为从句的主语)

我要嫁一个我爱的人。
I want to marry a man who I love.(限定man,who为从句的宾语)

规则:who/which/that作为从句宾语时可以去掉,who变成whom.
I want to marry a man I love.

Translation

我们见到的人很友好。
The people who we met were very friendly.

我妈妈作的晚饭很好吃。
The dinner (which) my mother cooked was delicious.

我老婆买的鱼是死的。
The fish (which) my wife bought was dead.

我找到了那本我想要的书。
I found the book I wanted.❤️

Exercise: Put in who/which
I met a woman who can speak 6 languages.
What’s the name of woman who lives next door.
What’s the name of the river which flow through the town?
Where is the picture which was hanging on the wall?
Do you know anybody who wants to buy a car?
You always ask questions which are difficult to answer.

A … is person who …
A thief is a person who steals things.
A dentist is a person who looks after your teeth.
A butcher is person who sells meat.
A fool is a person who is very stupid.
A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument.
A genius is a person who is very intelligent.

Make one sentence from two
The man who phoned didn’t give his name.
A woman who opened the door was wearing a yellow dress.

Barbara works for company that makes furniture.
The book is about a girl that runs away from home.
What happened to the pictures that were on the wall?
A mystery is something that cannot be explained.
The police have caught the men that stole my car.
A dictionary is a book that gives you the meaning of words.

that/which区分

只能用that,不能用which的情况

  1. 不定代词后面的定语从句
    (all, little, few, much, none, everything, anything)
    Is there anything that I can do for you?
    Tom told his mother all that had happeded.

  2. 名词被不定代词修饰
    Is there any new that is about the entrance examination.
    I’d like to read all the books that were written by him.

  3. 名词被最高级修饰
    This is the best book that I have read.
    It’s the most interesting film that I have ever seen.

  4. 名词由序数词来修饰(first, second, next, last) This is the last thing that I want to do.

whose的用法(…的)

whose不一定是人的,可以是它的。

有没有窗户朝海的房间?
Are there any room whose windows face the sea?

我们明天回去那个小镇。
我听说过那个小镇的名字。

We’ll go to the town.
I have heard of the name of the town.

We’ll go to the town whose name I have herad of.

I met someone whose mom writes detective stories.
I met a man whose wife teaches English.
I met a person whose parents used to work in circus.
I met someone whose ambition is to climb Everest.

以介词结尾的定语从句

This is the place which I live in.
This is the place in which I live.

介词在定语从句句尾太孤独,挪到which之前。(更正式)

介词后不能用that
介词后可以用which/whose/whom,口语中也用who

You are the guy we are tring to get away from.
You are the guy from whom we are tring to get away.

I’m living in a huge house in which I can even play golf!
I’m living in a huge house where I can even play golf!

The driver was the man from whose room she had stolen the maps.

地点名词 + where

❤️where = 介词 + which

This is the place where I live. This is the place which I live in. This is the place in which I live.

I grew up in the small village where I was born.
I grew up in the small village which I was born in.
I grew up in the small village in which I was born.

表示抽象地点的词(point, case, position, condition, situation),常用where引导
You have reached a point where medicine can’t help.
= You have reached a point at which medicine can’t help.

It’s put me in a position where I can’t afford to take the job.
= It’s put me in a position in which I can’t afford to take the job.

We can read of things that happened 5,000 years ago in the Near East, where people first learned to write.
But there are some parts of the world where even now people cannot write.

John stays at a hotel. You ask him: Did you like the hotel where you stayed?

Sue had dinner a restaurant. You ask her: What’s the name of the restaurant where you had dinner.
Sarah lives in a village. You ask her: Do you like the village where you live?
How big the factory where you work?

What’s the name of the man who borrowed your car?
A cemetery is a place where people are buried.
An orphan is a child whose parents are dead.
The place in which we spent out holidays was really beautiful.
The school is only for children whose first language is English.
What was the name of the person to whom you spoke on the phone.
The woman with whom he fell in love left him after a month.

when的用法

We have all experienced days when everything goes wrong.
We have all experienced days on which everything goes wrong.
We have all experienced days that seemed like years.

❤️when = 介词 + which There was a time when the owners of shops and businesses in Chicago had to pay large sums of money to gangsters in return for ‘protection’.
Aunt Harriet lived in that leisurely age when servants were employed to do housework.

There was a time when 曾几何时

why的用法

reason/cause + why

This is the reason why I didn’t come here.

非限定性定语从句

the beautiful mother. beautiful起不到限定性作用
Jonh’s mother.

有的定语可以起到限定作用(缩小范围),有些词像beautiful起不到限定性作用,只能起到补充作用

  • 限定定语:缩小范围,必要
  • 非限定定语:不缩小范围,不必要,仅补充
  1. 格式:,who/which(不能用that)
  2. 定语从句没有缩小名词的范围,去掉不影响理解。(定语从句前面的名词是唯一的,不需要缩小范围)

Yesterday I met my girlfriend who lives across the street.(more than one girlfriend)
Yesterday I met my girlfriend, who lives across the street.(have only one girlfriend)

David Beckham who modeled for clothing company has earned quite a lot of money.❌(David Beckham是已经唯一)
David Beckham, who modeled for clothing company, has earned quite a lot of money.

已经是唯一的,就打逗号,不需要再限定了。

The man who lives in this house has not been seen for years.(需要限定)
The mayor, who lives in this house, has not been seen for years.(不需要限定)

Collin told me about his new job, which he’s enjoying very much.
I have two offices. The office I’m using at the moment is very small.
Ben’s father, who used to be a teacher, now works for a TV company.

非限定性定语从句–提升
,which可代指前面整句话

She is extraordinarity beautiful, which makes her roommate envy her.
We ran out of money, which didn’t bother me a lot.

as引导非限定性定语从句

  1. 可放在句首或句中(句中可用which代替)
  2. 指代整个句子
  • as sb. say …
  • as is said …
  • as we all know …
  • as is known to all …
  • as I have told you …

As we all know, the whale is not a fish but a mammal.
= The whale is not fish but a mammal, as we all know.
= The whale is not fish but a mammal, which we all know.

As is known to us all, the whale is not a fish but a mammal.
= The whale is not fish but a mammal, as is known to all.
= The whale is not fish but a mammal, which is known to all.

总结

最基础:that/which/who
…的:whose
介词短语+which
地点:where
时间:when
原因:why
非限定性定语从句:which/who/as

that 人/物 不能用介词后,不定代词、序数词、最高级
which 介词+which
who 介词+whom
whose 人/物 介词+whose
where 地点 =介词+which
when 时间 =介词+which
why 原因 放在reason/cause后
,which/who 物,句子/人 名词唯一,不需要限定
as 句子 句首或逗号后

My friend showed me round the town, which was very kind of him.
单独只有逗号是不能连接2个完整句子的,需要连词。

Many children, whose parents are away working in big cities, are taken good care of in the village.

Gun control is a subject about which Americans have argued for a long time.

Mozart’s birthplace and the house where he composed “The Magic Flute” are both museums now.

A person whose e-mail account is full won’t be able to send or receive any e-mails.

I was very interested in all that she told me.

❤️介词后不能➕that

I have never been to Beijing, but It’s the place (that/which) I most want to visit.

It is human nature to think back to a Golden Age when one’s country was strong and respected.

Beer is the most popular drink among male drinkers, whose overall consumption is significantly higher than that of woman.

She’ll never forget the town where she found her son who had gone missing two years before.

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