Noun Clauses(名词性从句)

英语句法学习笔记(新东方张兰心)

介绍

在句子里可以扩展成从句的部分?

一群穿着各色衣服的游客在沙漠里玩儿
主要含义:游客玩儿

名词:游客
形容词:一群穿着各色衣服的
副词:在沙漠里

英语中的三大从句:

一、名词性从句:主语,宾语,表语,同位语
二、形容词性从句:定语从句
三、副词性从句:状语从句

词性 可扩展从句种类 含义(从句相当于)
名词性从句 主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句 名词
形容词性从句 定语从句 形容词
副词性从句 状语从句 副词

主语从句

定义:用一个句子来作主语。

John is short is public knowledge.❌
解决方案:加一个词来提示从句 that
That John is short is public knowledge.👌

头重脚轻,修改句式。

It(形式主语) is public knowledge that John is short.👌

主语从句的两种基本形式:
❤️That + 主语部分 + 谓语动词
That John is short is public knowledge.👌

❤️It + 谓语动词 + that + 主语部分(常用)
It(形式主语) is public knowledge that John is short.👌

改写
That the seas are being overfished has been known for years.
It has been known for years that the seas are being overfished.

常见句型:
It + be + n. + that…
It is a fact(a shame, a pity, no wonder, good news… )that…
It is a pity that we won’t be able to go to the south to spend our summer vacation.

It is no wonder that he has accomplished so much in such a short time - he has learned from the best!

It + be + 形容词 + that从句
It is obvious(true/clear/fortunate) that + 主语 + 动词…

It is obvious that we were all tricked by him.
It is fortunate that no one got hurt.

It is necessary(strange, important, possible, wonderful) that + 主语 + should do …
It is important that we all should attend the meeting.
It is strange that the man should stick to his silly ideas.

It is likely that … 有可能
It is likely that investors will face losses.
It is likely that they would go into hiding for few weeks, and resurface when the publicity has died down.

It + be + 动词的过去分词 + that 从句
It is said(reported, decided, found, believed, thought…) + that 从句

It is reported that 23 of the voters are planning to vote for Mr.Johnson.
It is believed that health is above wealth.

It + 不及物动词 + than …
It seems(happened, doesn’t matter, has turned out…) that …

It seems that he is starting to gain more popularity.
It has turned out that none of us were correct.

It happened that I ran out of money.

It + 其他系动词 + 表语
It seems certain that …
It remains a secret that …

It seems certain that I’ll win over his trust.
It remains a secret that the president is frightened of spiders.

It + vi. + prep + 宾语
It occurs to sb. that …某人想起
It dawns on sb. that…某人想起
某人想起

It occurred to me(我想起来) that I could use my husband’s credit card instead of mine.

I was dating a guy for couple of months when it suddenly dawned on me that he didn’t seem particularly excited about me.

Why John is short is public knowledge.

特殊疑问词引导主语从句: Why, what, who, where, when, which, whoever, whenever, whichever, wherever, how

根据句意选择相对应的特殊疑问词
用陈述句语序: 疑问词 + 主语 + 谓语

What I need is money.
What he says is not important.
What make the river more beautiful are the lotus plants growing in the water.

What doesn’t kill you makes you stronger.

How I spend my money is none of your business.
Where he was taken remains a mystery.
Whoever comes first will receive the price.

Whether we can trust him or not is still unclear.
Whether it will do us harm or not remains to be seen.

It is unclear whether we can trust him.

because 引导主语从句
Just because … doesn’t mean … 不意味着

Just because we don’t talk doesn’t mean I don’t think about you.
Just because we can’t be together doesn’t mean I won’t love you.
Just because you like it doesn’t mean I will.

It is a pity that he should feel so upset.
Whether they will go there to try another experiment has not been decided yet.
It occurred to him that he had forgotten to lock the door when he left home.

I sure that what she said is wrong.
Whatever you say now can’t make up for what you’ve done.

What we all need is a spell of warm sunshine.
What is troubing me is that I don’t have much experience in international commerce.

It’s doubtful whether he’ll be able to come.

宾语从句

句子作宾语

I know (that) he is a good person.(that可省略)
I know when we should go.
I know whether I should tell him the truth.
I know if I should tell him the truth.

特殊疑问词/whether/if + 陈述句语序(主语+谓语动词)

介词 + 疑问词引导的宾语从句
介词后面跟的东西也叫宾语。

I find the best way to concentrate is to make notes on what the readers are saying.

I will give this dictionary to whoever wants to have it.

whether .. or not 结构中不能用if替换

介词后只能用whether
Everything depends on whether you agree with us.

时态:主句是一般现在时,从句该用什么时态就用什么时态。
主句是一般过去时,宾语从句时态降级(往前推)。

The teacher told the children that the run is round.
I believe that our team will win the basketball match.

In the bookshop, a reader asked the shopkeeper if Who Moved My Cheese was an interesting book.

Catherine said that she had never been to Guangzhou.

have been to: 去过
have gone to: 人去了…

Do you know what will Tom will do during the coming holiday?

表语从句

系动词后面的叫表语

系动词:be, seem, become, get, remain, feel, smell, taste, look, sound, keep, stay.

His suggestion is good. His suggestion is that we should stay.

He has become a teacher.
He has become what he wanted to be ten years ago.

The question is confusing.
The question is when he can arrive at the hotel.

系动词 + that/whether/特殊疑问词 + 从句

My idea is that the child should be sent to school.(that 不可省略)
My concern is whether he comes or not.
Money is what we are badly in need of.

I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.
Is that why you had a few days off?

The traditional view is that we sleep because our brain is “programmed” to make us do so.

Are you still thinking about yesterday’s game? Oh, that’s what makes me feel excited.

What she couldn’t understand was why fewer and fewer students showed interest in her lessons.

What made the school proud was that more than 90% of the students had been admitted to key universities.

同位语从句

同位语从句:解释名词的内容
句子合并,把2个完整句子连接起来,而主语从句,表语从句,宾语从句的主句都不是完整句子。
他建议我买一只猫。这个建议很好。
我们可以把水果变成艺术品。这个想法非常巧妙。

中心名词 + {that + 句子}(同位语从句,解释名词的内容)

His suggestion that I buy a cat is very good.
The idea that we can turn fruit into art is excellent.

The belief that the earth is flat is still held in many countries.

常见中心词:
The fact that he was promoted.
概括发生了的事情: fact/news/information/decision
概括观念/想法类的事情:idea/belief/suggestion/opinion/advice/promise/knowledge/thought
可能性:possibility

When reports came into London Zoo that a wild puma had been spotted forth-five miles south of London, they were not taken seriously.

对某事很吃惊:be surprised at sth.

We are all surprised at the fact that he was promoted.
the fact 起连接的作用。

I am worried about the fact that nobody is taking care of him.(the fact 的前面为完整句子,后面也是完整句子)
如果the fact前面不是完整句子,比如:缺少宾语,则是宾语从句。

I’m tired of the fact that I have to babysit her all the time.

terrify vt. 使…害怕

The thought that I may lose him forever terrifies me.

总结

名词性从句就是用三种句子来分别充当另外一个句子的四种句子成分。

三种句子: that…/whether(if) / 特殊疑问词
四种成分: 主语/宾语/表语/同位语

宾语从句:可以用if引导,that可以省略
同位语从句通常由that引导

At first he hated the new job but decidec to give himself a few months to see if it got any better.(宾语从句)

She is very dear to us(宝贵). We have been prepared to do whatever it takes to save her life.(宾语从句)
whatever it takes 无论付出什么,带走什么

The fact has worried many scientists that the earth is becoming warmer and warmer these days.(同位语从句)

The little girl who got lost decided to remain where she was and wait for her mother.(宾语从句)

It is not immediately clear whether the finanical crisis will soon be over.(主语从句)

As a new diplomat, he often thinks of how he can react more appropriately on such occasions. (宾语从句)

News came from the school office that Wang Lin had been admitted to Beijing University.(同位语从句)

It is obvious to the students that they should get well prepared for their future.(主语从句)

Is there any possibility that you could pick me up at the airport?(同位语从句)

possibility 可能性
likely 可能

A good friend of mine from where I was born showed up at my home right before I left for Beijing.

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