Special Sentences(特殊句型)

英语句法学习笔记(新东方田静)

三种特殊句型

  • 强调
  • 倒装
  • 省略

强调句

口语中强调的方法:加重音,拉长音,加手势。

书面语中的强调句:√

将一个完整的句子拆成两部分,要强调的放中间。

I want to go America this summer.
It is America that I want to go to this summer.

强调句的变化

It is … not that
It was … (not) that

It is … that/who/whom/which …

It is … that (一定可以,强调什么都可以)

Lisa likes cooking at home.
It is Lisa that(who) likes cooking at home.

whom(作宾语)

We used to have meetings in the cafe.
used to do : 过去常常做某事
It was in the cafe we used to have meetings.

They celebrated the holiday on Nov. 11th.
It was on Nov. 11th that they celebrated the holiday.

Students don’t like too much homework.
It is too much homework that students don’t like.

I didn’t like the book.
It was the book that I didn’t like.

❤️It is … that … 写作中可加分

It was when I left your office that I left you a message.

Men can solve the problems of natural disaster only by controlling the enviornmental pullution.
It is only by controlling the enviornmental pullution that mem can solve the problems of natural disaster.

强调句的注意事项

It is … that …
强调句中不能强调动词形容词

It is said that if anyone touches the tree, he will have bad luck.(主语从句,而不是强调句)
It is said that … 被说

区别:强调句/主语从句

  1. 强调句是由一个完整句子,拆成两半。
  2. 强调句不能强调形容词和动词。

It was strange that they didn’t didn’t know each other.(主语从句)

It is on the fifth avenue that the accident often happen.(强调句)

It is believed that not all the girls like flowers.(主语从句)

倒装句–重点主谓倒装

倒装:为了突出强调某些信息

一、全部倒装:谓语动词都挪到主语前
二、部分倒装:谓语动词一部分挪到主语前

Here comes the bus.

Only on one occasion have I felt frightened.

on one occasion 只有一次

一、全部倒装

什么时候全部倒装?
突出强调形容词、副词、介词短语,而且谓语动词非常短。

On the north bank of the River sits a temple.
为了强调位置。

Also unclear is why they have done it.(主语从句)

❤️There be句型(全部倒装句):

There be + n. 有,客观存在

There a girl.
A girl is there.

have/possession 拥有

There is a book on the table.

❤️There be + n. + 介词短语(表示位置)

There is no gap between mind and matter.

❤️be的单复数,由后面的主语决定,有多个主语就近原则
❤️be的时态变化,is/are/will be/ would be/ have been/ had been/ would have been …

There will be a seven-day preparation for the meeting.
There have been controversial views about the issue.

❤️与情态动词结合,may/must/could/… do
情态动词后只能➕动词原形

There may be more matches in the database.

二、部分倒装(重点)

写作中使用。

❤️相当于变一般疑问句。

什么时候部分倒装?

一、否定副词或词组位于句首。(hardly, not only, little, few)
The not only developed such a device but they had also managed to embed it in a worldwide system.
Not only did they develop such a device but they had also managed to embed it in a worldwide system.

二、only位于句首。
Linguists began the serious study of languages only recently.
Only recently did Linguists begin the serious study of languages.

三、虚拟条件句省略if

If Entergy had kept its word, that debate would be pointless.
Had Entergy kept its word, that debate would be pointless.

I had no sooner got the invitation than I refused.
No sooner had I got the invitation than I refused.

He had hardly had time to settle down when he left the country.
Hardly had he had time to settle down when he left the country.

We can learn English well only in this way.
Only in this way can we learn English well.

He achived his goal only by working hard.
Only by working hard did he achive his goal.

If I were you, I would do it myself.
Were I you, I would do it myself.

If they had succeeded, they would have held a party.
Had they succeeded, they would have held a party.(过去见的不多啊)

省略句

一、并列句省略

只要并列句,前后有相同的部分,如主语、谓语、表语等,都可以省略,剩余部分保持不变。

并列连词:and,but,or
not only…,but also…
either…or…
neither…nor…

I am a teacher and I like English.
I am a teacher and like English.(省略主语I)

I am lying in bed and (I am) reading a book.
I am lying in bed and reading a book.

I want to leave and I want to go abroad.
I want to leave and to go to abroad.

二、状语从句的省略

状不是表示状态,状的意思是描述,描述性的信息。状语从句就是一个句子,表示描述性的信息。(❤️我就是需要这样通俗的解释!),从句是一个完整句子,它表示描述性的信息,前面加一个逻辑关系的词(从属连词),这个词儿是什么,就是什么状语从句(if/while)。

…While he was counting the steps…
…While counting the steps…

状语从句的省略,需要满足两个条件,一是从句的主语得跟主句的主语相同,二是动词里包含be。

The old lady was looking well althouth(让步状语从句) she was living alone.
The old lady was looking well althouth(让步状语从句) living alone.

If it is carefully done, the experiment will be successful.
If carefully done, the experiment will be successful.

A zero can have its meaning only when it is used with real number, thoughts can give off brilliant light only when they are put into actions.
A zero can have its meaning only when used with real number, thoughts can give off brilliant light only when put(过去分词,被动语态) into actions.

三、定语从句的省略

定语从句:一个句子(从句)作定语,定语的作用是修饰限定名词,所以要跟在名词后面,定语相当于形容词,类似于什么什么的,红的、好看的等。比如,说“一个姑娘”,但是不知道说的是哪个姑娘,所以说“站在墙角的姑娘。”,”站在墙角的“就是修饰限定作用。定语从句还需要有一个关系词或引导词来引出,比如which/that/who/whom,这个关系词指的就是要修饰的名词。

The list included all the things which were forbidden.
The list included all the things forbidden.

❤️省略的两个条件:一是定语从句的关系词作主语,二有be。

Books which are written in English are more expensive.
Books written in English are more expensive.

总结

为了避免啰嗦,所以用省略。
一、并列句的省略,相同就可以省略。
二、状语从句的省略,满足两个条件,从句主语和主句的主语相同,第二个是有be。
三、定语从句的省略,满足两个条件,一是定语从句的关系词作主语,二有be。

重点:
- 强调句
- 倒装(主谓倒装)

感谢🙏田静老师。

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