Include vs Extend in Ruby

include用于添加实例方法, extend用于添加类方法

module Foo
  def foo
    puts 'heyyyyoooo!'
  end
end

class Bar
  include Foo
end

Bar.new.foo # heyyyyoooo!
Bar.foo # NoMethodError: undefined method ‘foo’ for Bar:Class

class Baz
  extend Foo
end

Baz.foo # heyyyyoooo!
Baz.new.foo # NoMethodError: undefined method ‘foo’ for #<Baz:0x1e708>

使用惯例

使用include同时将实例方法和类方法包含。

module Foo
  def self.included(base)
    base.extend(ClassMethods)
  end

  module ClassMethods
    def bar
      puts 'class method'
    end
  end

  def foo
    puts 'instance method'
  end
end

class Baz
  include Foo
end

Baz.bar # class method
Baz.new.foo # instance method
Baz.foo # NoMethodError: undefined method ‘foo’ for Baz:Class
Baz.new.bar # NoMethodError: undefined method ‘bar’ for #<Baz:0x1e3d4>

参考资料

http://www.railstips.org/blog/archives/2009/05/15/include-vs-extend-in-ruby/

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